- August 19, 2015 - Solid colored glass has many popular uses
- April 30, 2015 - Understanding the Physical Properties of Glass
- April 30, 2015 - Annealing vs. Tempering – Glass Strengthening
- April 28, 2015 - SCHOTT Pyran® vs. SCHOTT Robax® – Ceramic/Glass
- April 24, 2015 - Glass Machining Capabilities
- April 22, 2015 - What is Heat Absorbing Float Glass?
- April 20, 2015 - What is Safety Glass?
- February 5, 2015 - What is a Hexagonal Louver?
- January 13, 2015 - Non-Glare Glass & Gloss Units
- December 12, 2014 - Common Glass Edge Treatments
- November 20, 2014 - Glass Strengthening Methods
- September 8, 2014 - What is a Seamed Edge and Why is it Important?
- September 4, 2014 - What are the Benefits of Low Iron Soda Lime Glass?
- September 4, 2014 - Can Strengthened Glass be Machined?
- September 4, 2014 - Corning® Eagle XG® vs. SCHOTT D263
- September 4, 2014 - Why Use Borofloat® Borosilicate Glass?
- August 19, 2014 - Glass Surface Quality – Scratch/Dig Specifications
- June 17, 2014 - Display Glass Capabilities
- October 29, 2012 - Fused Silica vs. Quartz
- September 27, 2012 - X-Ray Glass (Radiation Shielding Glass)
- September 18, 2012 - SCHOTT Robax® Heat Resistant Glass
- September 11, 2012 - Chemical Strengthening vs. Heat Strengthening of Glass Substrates
- September 4, 2012 - High Ion-Exchange (HIE™) vs. Soda Lime Glass
- August 23, 2012 - Screen Printing on Glass vs. Digital Printing
- August 21, 2012 - Epoxy/Polyester vs. Frit Ink for Screen Printing on Glass Substrates
Solid colored glass has many popular uses
Generally used for architectural projects, entertainment lighting and landscape lighting, the soda-lime or borofloat based glass can be heat strengthened for additional resistance to thermal shock. The glass can be machined, screen printed, sandblasted and fabricated to virtually any shape or size.
Abrisa Technologies carries a large inventory of MR11 (1.370”) and MR16 (1.965”) diameter and 1/8” thick lenses in stock. For a quote Click Here.
Abrisa Technologies Red #201 – Used to project a primary red colored light. Holiday/Theme lighting or dramatic effects.
Abrisa Technologies Yellow #203 – Vibrant and warm, excellent for special effects and accents. Great for landscaping.
Abrisa Technologies Pink #205 – This pale pink color is good for toning, and can be used to pull out the red and rich color of wood, while eliminating a green cast.
Abrisa Technologies Deep Green #206 – A dark yellow green or primary green, this is perfect for holiday lighting and special effects.
Abrisa Technologies Medium Amber #207 – Primary Amber. Used in landscape lighting often to bring out the color in brick, stone, rock landscapes. Also used for creating sunsets, candlelight or eliminated unwanted blue light.
Abrisa Technologies Medium Blue #209 – Good for non-realistic night skies or creating dramatic effects. Can be used as a primary blue.
Abrisa Technologies Blue Correction #211 – Used in landscape lighting as a correction filter. Makes the green in foliage “pop”. Also used for moonlighting. Helps maintain white light and eliminate amber hues. Cool area light.
Abrisa Technologies Lavender #401– Can be used for color correction or to bring out the reds or browns in wood.
Abrisa Technologies Mercury Vapor Green #402 – Used in landscape lighting to duplicate the output of a mercury vapor lamp. Brings out the green in foliage.
Abrisa Technologies Light Amber #403 – Warm Pale Yellow. Create fire effects or bring out the warm colors in brick, stone, “rockscapes”.
Abrisa Technologies Red #PS20 – Used to project a primary red colored light. Holiday/Theme lighting or dramatic effects.
Abrisa Technologies Amber #PS15 – Warm golden amber. Create special effects, candlelight, sunlight and firelight.
Many additional lighting products are available. For a complete list of Abrisa technologies absorption filters and dichroic filters and Roscoe reference numbers, Click Here.
Understanding the Physical Properties of Glass
Different types of glass possess different qualities depending upon their chemical makeup and how they have been produced. Choosing the right type of glass for a particular application also means understanding the different physical properties each different type of glass possesses.
There are 5 main properties of glass to be considered:
- Thermal Properties
- Optical Properties
- Chemical Properties
- Electrical Properties
- Mechanical Properties
- High resistance to heat up to 700ºC
- Good optical transmission
- Blocks UV
- Excellent resistance to thermal shock
- Windows for room heaters and stoves
- Fireplace screens
- UV blocking shields
- Cover panels for high powered flood lights
- Cover panels for IR drying appliances
- Outstanding optical clarity
- Mirror smooth finish
- Produced without any toxic/heavy metals, arsenic or antimony
- Vision panels in fire doors
- Fire door lights
- Fire window glazing
- Cutting – click here for more info
- Scribe Cutting
- Hand Cutting
- Precision XY Sawing (slicing)
- Tube & Rod Cutting
- Edging – click here for more info
- Angles and Multi-level Bevels
- Corner Dubbing
- Circle and Flat
- Pencil and Polished Edges
- Machining – click here for more info
- CNC Processing
- Drilling – Holes and Tapers
- Circle Grinding & Polishing
- Buffing and Lapping
- 60º – This is the highest level of etching, least amount of glare and reflectivity
- 140º – This is the lowest level of gloss, most similar to untreated glass
- Cut/Seam – this is often called a safety seam edge or swiped edge, the primary purpose is to remove the sharp edges; it is not a smooth cosmetically finished edge. A sanding belt is used to lightly sand off the sharp edge of the glass.
- Machine Ground – Diamond embedded grinding wheel put a satin finish on the edge
- Pencil – edge has a radius similar to pencil of a “C-shape”.
- Flat – a flat edge with a small 45 degree chamfer on the very top and bottom.
- Machine Polished – Taking a ground edge another step, polishing the edges to give the glass a nice sheen finish.
- Pencil – edge has a radius similar to pencil of a “C-shape”.
- Flat – a flat edge with a small 45 degree chamfer on the very top and bottom.
- Chip depth – measured from the face of the glass into the thickness. Allowed up to 50% of the glass thickness.
- Chip width – perpendicular distance from the edge of the glass to the inner edge of the chip. Allowed up to half the glass thickness or 1/4″ whichever is greater for glass; for mirror, half of glass thickness or 1/16” whichever is greater.
- Chip length – distance parallel to edge of glass from one edge of a chip to the other. Allowed up to two (2) times the chip width.
- 2 to 3% higher light transmission in 1/8” thickness vs. regular soda-lime glass and 8% higher light transmission in ½” thickness vs. regular soda-lime glass
- 91% visible light transmission for 1/8” – 3/8” thick glass
- Good flatness and surface quality due to float process
- Can be coated with anti-reflection coating on both sides to achieve 98% total light transmission
- Retains colorlessness and clarity over time unlike some plastic components which can yellow
- Can be fully heat tempered to increase thermal shock resistance and mechanical strength
- Asahi Dragontrail™
- Corning® Gorilla® Glass
- SCHOTT Xensation™
Glass is measured in a variety of factors which greatly affect your choice of glass. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) is the expansion measurement of glass as temperature is raised. This is an important factor to consider when placing glass in a frame since glass expands much less than most metals and plastics, and may cause breakage upon cooling. The thermal conductivity is the ability to conduct heat through the glass or away from the heat/light source. This is important when considering glass as a view port exposed to high temperatures or for high infrared applications. Each type of glass has a maximum operating temperature and thermal shock rating. These will guide the choice of glass depending on the amount of heat the glass will withstand, and how it cools after the glass is subjected to a rapid change in temperature. Glass may be strengthened to change these thermal properties by heat strengthening, heat tempering, or chemically strengthening. Click here to learn more about glass strengthening.
There are several important measurements when determining the amount of light passing through glass. The refractive index determines how much a light wave is “bent” when entering or leaving the surface of the glass. This is important in producing certain optical devices or effects, such as lenses. The dispersion measures the separation of light into its component colors, such as a prism dispersing white light into a color band or a rainbow effect. The transmission measures the amount of light passing through the glass material, and its opposite, reflectivity which measures the return of light from the surface. The absorption property is the amount of light energy converted to heat within the glass that is not transmitted nor reflected. Tinted materials will absorb more light than clear materials.
All soda lime type glasses and some borosilicate glasses contain sodium or alkali metal ions. Prolonged exposure to liquids or vapor, such as water, will cause the sodium/alkali ions to migrate to the surface of the glass called sodium or alkali leaching. This can cause cloudiness or haze on the surface of the glass. Porous coatings may also incur this phenomenon, causing a disruption of the bond between the coating and the glass surface. In high humidity or critical surface applications, this must be considered when specifying the material. Placing a “barrier” coating, such as silicon dioxide, on the glass will limit the amount of reaction. The acid resistance and alkali resistance measure the time it takes to remove a layer of specified thickness for each test.
When choosing a glass for electrical or electronic applications, there are several characteristics to consider. The volume resistivity is the resistance in ohms between opposite faces of a centimeter cube of the glass tested. This is important when glass is used as an electrical insulator. The dielectric constant of a glass is the ratio of energy stored in a condenser with the glass as the dielectric, compared with the energy stored in the same condenser with air as the dielectric. This measures the ability of a glass to store electrical energy, and varies with the frequency of the voltage applied to the condenser. This is important when the glass is used as a substrate for electrical or electronic devices. Surface resistivity is the ratio of the potential gradient parallel to the current along its surface, to the current per unit width of the surface. This method is used to measure the conductivity of coated glass.
The mechanical properties of glass determine the amount of stress a glass can withstand. Stress is defined as the perpendicular force per unit area applied to an object, in a way that compresses (compressive stress) or stretches (tensile stress) the object. Strength of the ability of glass to withstand these stresses. Non-strengthened glass materials have relatively low tensile strength yet high compressive strength. Therefore, most glass breakage is due to tensile stress failure. Mechanical properties are measured in a variety of ways: Modulus of Rupture (MOR) test measures the bending or flexural strength; shear modulus measures the amount of shearing or twisting forces a glass can withstand; Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) measures the hardness of glass; density is the mass value per unit of volume specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the glass to the density of water.
Annealing vs. Tempering – Glass Strengthening
Annealing – During Initial Manufacturing
When glass undergoes the annealing process, it is slowly cooling the hot glass to relieve internal stress once it has been formed. Annealing glass makes it more durable. Glass which has not undergone the annealing process is susceptible to cracking or shattering when subjected to relatively small temperature changes or mechanical shock. It may in fact retain many of the thermal stresses caused by quenching (i.e. heat treating) and significantly decrease the overall strength of the glass.
During the manufacturing process the glass is heated until the temperature reaches the annealing point which is the stress relief point glass reaches during the cool down phase. At this point, the glass is too firm to distort or bend but remains soft enough for any built up stresses to relax. Soaking or holding the piece of glass at this temperature helps to even out the temperature throughout the piece of glass. The time required for this soak or holding action can vary depending on the mass and type of glass. Once this point has reached and the hold time has been accomplished, the annealed glass is slowly cooled through the strain point. Following this process, the glass can carefully be cooled until it reaches room temperature.
Tempered Glass – Strengthening a Finished Piece of Glass
When glass is tempered, it goes through a thermally controlled toughening process to increase its strength compared with normal or conventional glass. The tempering process puts the outer surfaces of the glass into compression and the inner surfaces of the glass into tension. This stress causes the glass when broken to crumble into small granular chunks vs. jagged shards preventing possible injury. Annealed glass which has not been heat tempered, if broken will not break into the “safety” chunks or dices, but will in fact break into jagged shards.
Tempered glass is considered to be safety glass and is used for applications such as car windshields, shower doors, glass tables and doors and more.
SCHOTT Pyran® vs. SCHOTT Robax® – Ceramic/Glass
ROBAX® is a transparent ceramic fireplace glass manufactured by SCHOTT. It is extremely heart-resistant and sturdy and displays a very low thermal expansion. ROBAX’s temperature stability, transparency, heat transmission and long life span make it an excellent choice in comparison to conventional flat glass where thermal shock and shifts in temperature are present, making it a perfect selection for protection from fire hazards.
Abrisa Technologies can provide ROBAX® in thicknesses of 3mm to 5mm and in sizes up to 62” x 33” (1574.8 x 838.2mm)
Find out more about ROBAX® – click here
PYRAN® is a transparent environmentally friendly fire-rate architectural glass-ceramic that is fire-protection rated for up to 90 minutes. It is intended for use in non-impact, safety-related locations.
Abrisa Technologies can provide PYRAN® in thicknesses of 5mm and in sizes up to 77” x 43” (1955.8 x 1092.2mm)
Find out more about PYRAN® – click here
Glass Machining Capabilities
Abrisa Technologies can provide high precision machining of a broad array of flat glass substrates such as soda lime, borosilicate (Borofloat®), fused silica and quartz, Pyran®, Robax®, HIE glass such as AGC Xensation, Corning® Gorilla® Glass, SCHOTT Xensation™, and more.
High volume, large capacity machining or prototype machining is all done on site at our Santa Paula manufacturing facility.
Typical machining capabilities include:
What is Heat Absorbing Float Glass?
Heat Absorbing Float Glass (HAFG) is designed with the capability to typically absorb 40% of the infrared (IR) light and about 25% or more of the visible light that passes through it. The glass reduces solar heat while maintaining visible light transmission. The soda lime glass is a light blue/green color which subdues brightness while providing high visible light transmittance of up to 77% for a glass that is 6.0mm thick. Heat absorbing float glass is often used as a shortpass (SP) filter.
A shortpass filter is an optical interference or colored glass filter that attenuates longer wavelengths and transmits or passes shorter wavelengths over the active range of the target spectrum (usually UV ultraviolet and visible region). Learn More
Common uses include fluorescence microscopy and in dichromatic mirrors and excitation filters.
To learn more about Heat Absorbing Float Glass, Click Here
What is Safety Glass?
Safety glass is glass which resists shattering. Heat strengthened or tempered glass is1 type of safety glass; the reason being, when it breaks, it breaks into rounded grains of glass versus sharp shards, which could cause serious injury.
Abrisa Technologies provides heat tempered safety glass utilizing soda lime glass as per standard ASTM C-1048-04. The soda lime glass is toughened through the controlled heating and cooling of the glass to maintain a temperature differential between the core and outer surfaces. The stress induced compresses the outer surfaces, forming a glass substrate substantially stronger than standard soda lime glass. When this glass is broken, it “dices” into many small pieces which prevents the likelihood of injury due to a fracturing of the glass.
Abrisa Technologies can provide heat tempering or “safety tempering” of glass on substrates measuring as small as 0.75” x 0.75” up to 29” x 33”. Glass minimum thickness of 0.118” and maximum thickness of 0.75”.
Automobile windshields, shower enclosures, table tops, lighting fixtures, some windows, appliances and more, are all made of a form of safety glass.
For more information click here
What is a Hexagonal Louver?
The cells of the hexagonal louver minimize perceived lamp brightness and shield the light source. Commonly used in conjunction with a colored or dichroic filter for entertainment lighting applications, or those requiring diffusion.
Abrisa Technologies carries stock inventory of MR 11 (1.370”) diameter and MR16 (1.965”) diameter louvers which have a thickness of 3mm. Custom sizes can be ordered.
The hexagonal louvers are made from a low density, high strength material originally used for structural use in the aircraft industry. Hexagonal louvers can be fabricated to nearly any shape or size. The MR11 and MR16 louvers provide 45 degree cut-off. Custom cut-off requirements are available. The louvers can withstand temperatures up to 350ºF.
Non-Glare or Anti-Glare glass breaks up incident light reflected images, allowing the user to focus on the display image versus the reflected images. Unlike anti-reflection coated or untreated surfaces, anti-glare etched glass does not become highly reflective as a result of oily finger prints.
Abrisa Technologies anti-glare glass is manufactured by a controlled acid etch process yielding uniform diffused surfaces for anti-glare, high resolution.
Varying levels of diffusion specified as gloss yield different levels of reduced glare. A lower gloss reading denotes a more diffuse panel. The more diffuse the panel surface, the more glare reduction it provides. However, an inverse relationship exists between the degree of diffusion and the panel’s resolution.
Specular Gloss & Gloss Units
Specular gloss is quantified by measuring the amount of light reflected from the sample and comparing it with the amount of light reflected when a polished black glass calibration standard is measured under the same conditions. The glass standard is assigned a value of 100 gloss units. Any surface that reflects more light than the black glass standard will produce a glossmeter reading of greater than 100 gloss units.
The glossmeter illuminates a test surface at a defined angle of incidence and measures the amount of light at a defined angle of reflection. Since basic physics tells us that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, it is convenient to refer to one angle only and this is generally referred to as the “geometry” of the instrument.
The lower the gloss units, the less glare. Abrisa Technologies can provide non-glare or anti-glare soda lime glass with the following gloss unit specifications:
Abrisa Technologies can fabricate many edge treatments for the various glass substrates we provide. The edge treatment selected can affect functionality and performance.
Edging is done for safety, cosmetics, functionality, cleanliness, improved dimensional tolerance, and to prevent chipping. Edging is generally described as a grinding process used to remove the sharp or raw edge of cut glass.
The most common edge treatments done at Abrisa Technologies are:
|Flat Ground or Flat Polished Edge|
|Pencil Ground or Pencil Polished Edge|
Minimum glass thickness for edging at Abrisa Technologies is: 0.020” (0.5mm)
|Cut/Seam Soda Lime||Flat Polished Soda Lime||Pencil Polished Soda Lime||Pencil Polished Borofloat®||Flat Ground Borofloat®|
* Edge photos are for sample reference only. Actual edge treatments may appear more sheen like for polished edges.
Strengthening glass can be done via three primary processes; tempering, thermal strengthening and chemical strengthening in order to increase the heat resistance and overall strength of the glass.
Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the inner surfaces into tension. Such stresses cause the glass, when broken, to crumble into small granular chunks instead of splintering into jagged shards as plate glass (aka: annealed glass) create. The granular chunks are less likely to cause injury.
As a result of its safety and strength, toughened glass is used in a variety of demanding applications, including passenger vehicle windows, shower doors, architectural glass doors and tables, refrigerator trays, as a component of bulletproof glass, for diving masks, and various types of plates and cookware.
Heat tempering of glass is available in sizes of 160” x 92” (4,064 mm x 2,336.8 mm). This process can be done on glass with a minimal thickness of 1/8” (3.175 mm) and a maximum thickness of 1/2” (12.7 mm), (1” thick for smaller parts – up to 30” x 24” or 762 mm x 609.6 mm). In the heat tempering process, the glass substrate is placed onto a roller table and then it goes through a furnace, heating up the glass above its annealing point up to about 720°C in some cases. The glass is then quickly cooled (quenched) with forced air drafts.
The heat-treatment process of ordinary float glass consists in heating the glass beyond its softening point (over 600°C) and then cooling it down rapidly. This cooling freezes the outer surfaces in their dilated mode while allowing the inner material to retract as temperature drops, thus creating compression strength on the outer layers and tension in the inner layer. Compression strengths in tempered glass are higher than in heat strengthened glass.
Heat strengthening of glass is available in sizes of 168” x 96” (4,367.2 mm x 2,438.4 mm). This process can be done on glass with a minimal thickness of 1/8” (3.175 mm) and a maximum thickness of 1/2” (12.7 mm), (1” or 25.4 mm thick for smaller parts – up to 32”x 25” or 812.8 mm x 635 mm). In the heat strengthening process, the glass substrate is processed similar to a fully tempered part, except that the temperature and cycle times, along with the quenching parameters are varied.
Abrisa Technologies’ High Ion Exchange or HIE™ glass is chemically strengthened glass that has increased strength as a result of a post-product chemical process. Glass is submersed in a bath containing a potassium salt (typically potassium nitrate) at 300°C. This causes sodium ions in the glass surface to be replaced by potassium ions from the bath solution. These potassium ions are larger than the sodium ions and therefore wedge into the gaps left by the smaller sodium ions when they migrate to the potassium nitrate solution. This replacement of ions causes the surface of the glass to be in a state of compression and the core in compensating tension. The surface compression of chemically strengthened glass may reach up to 690 MPa. This process typically increases the strength of the glass by 6 to 8X that of float glass. The ion-exchange process creates a deep compression layer on the surface of the glass structure, reducing the introduction of flaws once incorporated into the end product and put into service.
Chemically strengthened glass is available in a minimum thickness of 0.30mm (0.012″), and a maximum thickness of 19mm or (0.75″). Minimum size is 25.4mm x 25.4 mm or (1″ x 1″) and a maximum size of 914.4mm x 736.6mm or (36″ x 29″). Diagonal maximum size of 1056.8mm x 736.6mm or (42″ x 29″) – approximately 51″ diagonal.
Property Changes Due to Strengthening Glass – Comparison Chart
|Property||Heat Tempering Change||Heat Strengthening Change||Chemical Strengthening Change (8 hours)||Chemical Strengthening Change (16 hours)|
|Impact Resistance*||5 to 6x||N/A||3 to 4x||4 to 5x|
|Bending Strength*||4 to 5x||2x||3.5x||2.5 to 3x|
|Resistance to Temperature*||4x||2.5x||1.8 to 2.5x||1.8 to 2.5x|
|Compressive Stress at Surface||>69MPa||24MPa to 69MPa||165MPa (24kpsi)||220MPA (32kpsi)|
*Relative increase over annealed glass. 5x means 5 times greater
Flat glass that has a seamed edge or slightly beveled edge is that which has been lightly sanded to remove any sharp burrs for. This glass is safe to handle but is not intended for decorative use. A sanding belt is used to lightly sand off the sharp edges of the glass also referred to as a swiped edge or a chamfered edge.
Seamed edges are the most economical but not recommended if the edges will be exposed. Additionally ASTM C1036 standard specification for flat glass – edge chips are allowed on this form of edge work.
Abrisa Technologies provides seamed edges as standard unless another edge treatment is requested.
Low Iron Soda-Lime Glass or water-white glass is a clear transparent soda-lime-based glass that is almost tint-free, resulting from its being produced from higher quality grades of silica sand that are almost totally free of iron oxides. 1/8” thick low iron glass transmits approximately 2 to 3% more light than regular soda-lime glass, making it a perfect solution for applications requiring maximum visible light transmission and little to no color distortion.
Glass that has been tempered or heat strengthened cannot be machined. Any fabrication done prior to the heat or tempering process must be smooth as well as chip and crack free. Any holes, notches, etc. should be located on the fabricated glass part so as to avoid breakage during the strengthening process.
Unlike heat toughened glass, chemically strengthened soda lime glass may be cut after strengthening, but loses its added strength within the region of approximately 20 mm of the cut. Similarly, when the surface of chemically strengthened glass is deeply scratched, this area loses its additional strength.
High Ion-Exchange (HIE™) Chemically Strengthened Thin Glass CAN NOT be post fabricated. That includes:
This glass can only be strengthened as a final step. It may be coated and screen printed, but not machined.
- Strengthened glass loses over 50% of its strength if successfully cut, so it would no longer be considered HIE™ chemically strengthened glass.
- HIE™ glass is under high levels of compressive stress making it extraordinarily difficult to machine.
Corning® Eagle XG® is a borosilicate glass specifically designed for high performance LCD’s. It is considered environmentally friendly as it contains no heavy metals (arsenic, antimony, barium, or halides). The glass also features high surface quality, excellent thermal properties, low density, and high resistance to chemicals.
- Environmentally friendly (no heavy metals)
- Excellent surface quality
- Good thermal properties
- Low density
- Chemical durability
- Thicknesses – 0.0433” (0.7mm) and 0.0275” (1.1mm)
SCHOTT D263® is a thin, colorless borosilicate glass with low alkali content produced with extremely pure raw materials making it highly chemical resistant. It is produced in a special draw process that results in excellent surface quality that can be coated without any post-process surface work. The combination of these traits makes D263® highly versatile.
- Extremely flat surfaces
- Large range of thicknesses (0.030mm – 1.1mm)
- Very good substrate for coatings
- Excellent transmission over a large spectrum
- Low level mobility of alkali ions
- Coefficient of thermal expansion close to ceramic
- High chemical resistance
- Smooth fire polished surface
- Borofloat® 33 is a clear and transparent colorless glass with excellent transmission and its very weak fluorescence intensifies over the entire light spectrum making Borofloat® 33 ideal for a wide range of applications in optics, opto-electronics, photonics, and analytical equipment.
- Has a low thermal expansion, high shock resistance, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 450ºC for long periods, making it a good choice for applications requiring temperature stability.
- Is highly resistant to attack by water, strong acids, alkalis as well as organic substances which make it suitable for use in the chemical industry with applications such as sight glasses for reaction vessels and fitting.
- Has a lower density than soda lime float glass making it possible to construct lightweight laminated glass systems (e.g. bulletproof glass).
- Provides a high transmission of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelength.
- Its low alkali content makes it a good electrical insulator.
- Its high boron content can be used as a neutron absorber glass for nuclear energy applications.
- Is environmentally friendly and made of natural raw materials. The glass can be recycled several times.
- Can be waterjet and laser cut, can be provided with arrissed, beveled, ground or polished edges, it can be coated (anti-reflective or AR coated) thermally toughened/strengthened, screen printed, sand blasted, surface polished, and drilled.
- High Mechanical Strength
- Low density/lightweight
- High flatness
- Low waviness
- High light transmittance
- Low Fluorescence
- High homogeneity
- Colorless appearance
- High thermal robustness
- Low C.T.E. (3.25 x 10-6 K-1)
- High Thermo-shock resistance
- Hydrolytic resistant
- 120/80 is considered commercial quality
- 80/50 is a common acceptable cosmetic standard
- 60/40 is acceptable for most scientific research applications
- 40/20 laser quality
- 20/10 optics precision
- Medical diagnostic screens
- Airport security X-ray screens
- Safety goggle lenses
- View windows for CT and angiography
- Protection windows & glove boxes in laboratories
- Improved impact resistance
- Improved flexibility strength
- Improved scratch resistance
- Improved resistance to temperature changes
- Asahi Dragontrail™
- Corning® Gorilla® Glass
- SCHOTT Xensation™
- Ekra X4
- Argon – Large Format
- Custom Press
- Color: black and silver standard but custom colors are available
- Resolution: can print as fine as 0.305 mm (0.012″)
- Thickness requirements :
- Single pass 25 – 60 µm
- Color: black and white standard but custom PMS (Pantone Match) colors are
- Resolution: can print as fine as 0.127 mm (0.005″) minimum
- Thickness requirements:
- Single pass 10 – 12 µm
- Double pass 25 – 60 µm
SCHOTT Borofloat® 33 borosilicate is a versatile glass with infinite applications. The unique float glass is manufactured in a process which results in a homogeneous material that has an excellent mirror-like surface, a high degree of flatness, and an outstanding optical quality.
Mechanical & Surface Properties
Glass Surface Quality – Scratch/Dig Specifications
Scratch/Dig refers to cosmetic defects found in glass from the manufacturing and/or handling process. Abrisa Technologies’ standard metric for measuring such defects is based upon industry standards. The lower the ratio, the more stringent the specification.
Your specific application will determine the quality level and test procedures necessary. Specifically, this specification defines the state of polish, and freedom from scratches and digs.
Scratches – A scratch is defined as any linear “tearing” of the surface of the glass. The scratch number refers to the width of the reference scratch. See Standards Table below. Keep in mind that this equivalence is determined purely by visual comparison, and the appearance of a scratch can depend upon the component material, presence of any coatings, and lighting conditions. This, again, refers to the width. The acceptance/rejection of the length of a specified scratch is determined by a ratio of the length of the scratch to the size of the glass part.
Digs – A dig is defined as a pit or small crater on the surface of the glass. Digs are defined by their diameter. The dig number represents the actual size of the dig in hundredths of a millimeter. The diameter of an irregularly shaped dig is ½ x (Length + Width).
Scratches are determined by width size while digs are determined by diameter.
Scratch/Dig Standards Table:
|Scratch/Dig Grade||Scratch Max. Width||Dig Max. Diameter|
|120/80||0.0047” or (0.12mm)||0.0315” or (0.80mm)|
|80/50||0.0032” or (0.08mm)||0.0197” or (0.50mm)|
|60/40||0.0024” or (0.06mm)||0.0157” or (0.40mm)|
Abrisa Technologies has a specific standard AS1001 for performing scratch/dig inspection. To view this specification – click here.
Screen Printed Graphics
Bus Bars & Wire Soldering
Protective Coatings & MIL-Spec Tests
Fused Silica vs. Quartz
Fused Silica and Quartz are both extremely pure materials featuring very low thermal expansion and excellent optical qualities. They both work well as high temperature view ports, optical windows, and in areas that require good chemical resistance.
The main difference between the two is that Fused Silica is composed of a non-crystalline silica glass, while Quartz is made from crystalline silica. This difference gives Fused Silica very high transmission in the UV spectrum compared to that of Quartz. Quartz also features a much lower OH content.
The Abrisa Industrial Glass (AIG) division offers two options:
Corning® 7980 Fused Silica – Corning® 7980 is a very pure, non-crystalline silica glass. It features very low thermal expansion and excellent optical qualities, including very high transmission in the UV spectrum.
up to 6.5” x 6.5”
GE 124 Fused Quartz – GE 124 is a very pure fused quartz, made from crystalline silica. GE 124 is very similar to fused silica, with the exception of less transmission in the UV spectrum and much lower OH content. Other features besides its purity include excellent thermal properties and high resistance to chemicals.
up to 4”
up to 36” diameter
To learn more go to: Fused Silica/Quartz
X-Ray Glass (Radiation Shielding Glass)
X-Ray leaded glass is a radiation shielding glass that contains a high content of heavy metallic oxides. The heavy metallic oxides, most notably the lead oxide (PbO), provides the protective qualities against X-rays and Y-rays for use in the medical and technical fields. Despite the high metallic oxide content, Radiation Shielding Glass features high optical transmission, which makes it a perfect fit for view windows for X-ray rooms.
Other applications would include:
Lead content is measured in percentage, and has a lead equivalency value associated with the content. The lead equivalency value is measured in millimeters and represents the thickness of a solid lead plate with comparable properties to the content of the lead in the glass.
Abrisa Technologies carries 8mm thick glass with lead content percentage of 55% – 65%, and a lead equivalency of 2mm.
X-Ray glass from Abrisa Technologies is available in sizes up to 31” x 29”
Learn more click, X-Ray Glass
SCHOTT Robax® Heat Resistant Glass
SCHOTT Robax® is a transparent ceramic glass that is extremely heat resistant. It can withstand temperatures up to 1400°F (760°C) due to its low coefficient of thermal expansion. Robax® has high transmission in the visible and infrared spectrums, which makes it an excellent choice as a window in high temperature applications such as fireplaces and stoves. Robax® also has ultra-violet (UV) blocking characteristics, which makes it suitable for UV blocking shields.
While Robax® has good transmission and heat resistant properties; it has a slightly textured surface and an amber colored hue, and therefore may not be desirable for coatings or other high tech applications.
Abrisa Technologies can provide Robax® in thicknesses of 3mm and 5mm, and with a maximum sheet size of 62” x 33”.
To learn more, click – Robax®
Chemical Strengthening vs. Heat Strengthening of Glass Substrates
Chemical strengthening and heat strengthening/tempering are both processes for increasing the strength and durability of soda lime and other glass substrates.
Chemical strengthening is best suited for thin display applications (3mm and under, though can be up to 6mm) as well as applications where optical distortion must be kept to a minimum. The chemical strengthening process toughens soda lime and other glass substrates through a sodium and potassium ion-exchange process in a salt bath. The process imparts a higher strength, durability, and MOR (Modulus of Rupture, which is resistance to breaking in bending) as well as maintaining higher surface quality (80/50 and up to 60/40 for smaller applications). Glass can be strengthened from 8 to 16 hours imparting an MOR of 165 Mpa (24 Kpsi) and case depth of 16-19 um for the 8 hour cycle and an MOR of 220 Mpa (32 Kpsi) and case depth of 22-27 um for the 16 hour cycle.
Heat strengthening and full tempering require a 3mm or thicker glass substrate and generally can only maintain 120/80 surface quality while imparting a higher thermal strength and a safety dicing break pattern (when broken dices into many small pieces for safety) for fully tempered parts. The heat strengthening process is utilized when a full temper is not possible due to thickness, size, or low thermal expansion rate of the substrate. Heat strengthened glass is generally twice as strong as standard annealed glass, while full tempered glass is typically four to six time stronger than annealed glass. Often of high importance is that full tempered glass imparts the safety dicing pattern when broken. The quality of heat treated parts (H/S or F/T) such as cosmetics and warping, as also the specifications/ requirements of machined features such as holes being a certain distance away from the edges of the glass is specified in ASTM C-1048-04.
Learn more click, glass strengthening
High Ion-Exchange (HIE™) vs. Soda Lime Glass
Soda lime is a float glass that can be either heat tempered or chemically strengthened. It does not require the specific treatment for use, thus making it inexpensive and available in multiple configurations. High Ion-Exchange (HIE™) glass is a thin lightweight, aluminosilicate glass that is used to achieve greater scratch, impact, and shock resistance. This is best suited for display cover glass applications. To achieve the full benefit of HIE™ glass, the material must have smooth, pencil ground edges, and must go through a custom HIE™ chemical strengthening process. HIE™ glass can achieve two times the compressive stress and depth of layer as does soda lime, if not greater.
HIE™ Glass advantages include:
Abrisa Technologies HIE™ glass is presently available in thicknesses from 0.5 to 3.0 mm and in sizes of up to 36″ x 29″.
Abrisa Technologies can supply the following HIE™ glass substrates:
Screen Printing on Glass vs. Digital Printing
Screen printed imaging involves applying ink through a mesh screen to achieve an image, then curing the ink to adhere to a substrate. Digital printing involves taking an image and directly printing onto a substrate. Digital printing gives more detailed imaging when applying an image onto a material. However, screen printing is a lower cost method that provides more durable and vibrant imaging. It is a more versatile process when applying ink colors and thickness to glass substrates, typically suited for printing picture frame borders and logos on products such as cover glass, EMI shields, lighting fixtures and other display glass.
Abrisa Technologies utilizes a screen printing process for applying either frit or epoxy/polyester inks to a broad selection of glass substrates.
Screen printing is done via one of the following:
Minimum glass substrate thickness to screen print is: 0.28 mm (0.011″)
Maximum glass substrate thickness to screen print is: 25.4 mm (1.0″)
Minimum glass substrate dimension to screen print is: 7.6 x 7.6 mm (0.3 x 0.3″)
Maximum glass substrate dimension to screen print is: 1828 x 1371 mm (72″ x 54″)
Epoxy/Polyester vs. Frit Ink for Screen Printing on Glass Substrates
Frit is a durable, temperature resistant ink that is composed of glass and ceramic particles. The composition of frit helps the adhesion of the ink to the glass, which is tempered onto a substrate at high temperatures, thus making it more abrasion resistant. Epoxy is a cost effective, user friendly ink that can be cured at low temperatures shows good opacity. It is thinner not as durable as frit. However, it can be used on thinner glass, as epoxy does not require tempering to adhere to glass.
Frit ink specs for Abrisa Technologies Screen Printing:
Epoxy/Polyester ink specs for Abrisa Technologies Screen Printing:
Minimum glass substrate thickness to screen print is: 0.28 mm (0.011″) and 3mm min. (0.118″) for frit
Maximum glass substrate thickness to screen print is: 25.4 mm (1.0″)
Minimum glass substrate dimension to screen print is: 7.6 x 7.6 mm (0.3 x 0.3″)
Maximum glass substrate dimension to screen print is: 1828 x 1371 mm (72 x 54″)
All screen printing at Abrisa Technologies is performed on either a semi-automatic or automated printer within a Class 100 or 10,000 cleanroom. The platform selected is dependent upon need and specification requirements.
To learn more, click – Screen Printing