- August 19, 2015 - What is a Thin Film Optical Coating?
- August 19, 2015 - Solid colored glass has many popular uses
- May 4, 2015 - Metallic Mirror Coatings
- April 30, 2015 - Understanding the Physical Properties of Glass
- April 30, 2015 - Annealing vs. Tempering – Glass Strengthening
- April 28, 2015 - SCHOTT Pyran® vs. SCHOTT Robax® – Ceramic/Glass
- April 24, 2015 - Glass Machining Capabilities
- April 22, 2015 - What is Heat Absorbing Float Glass?
- April 22, 2015 - Hot Mirror vs. Cold Mirror
- April 20, 2015 - What is Safety Glass?
- April 17, 2015 - What is a Neutral Density Filter?
- April 17, 2015 - What is a UV Filter?
- February 5, 2015 - What is a Hexagonal Louver?
- January 13, 2015 - Non-Glare Glass & Gloss Units
- December 12, 2014 - Common Glass Edge Treatments
- November 20, 2014 - Glass Strengthening Methods
- November 20, 2014 - Anti-Glare vs. Anti-Reflective Glass
- October 23, 2014 - Oleophobic vs. Hydrophobic Glass Coatings
- October 23, 2014 - What is a Dichroic Filter?
- September 8, 2014 - What is a Seamed Edge and Why is it Important?
- September 4, 2014 - What are the Benefits of Low Iron Soda Lime Glass?
- September 4, 2014 - Can Strengthened Glass be Machined?
- September 4, 2014 - Corning® Eagle XG® vs. SCHOTT D263
- September 4, 2014 - Why Use Borofloat® Borosilicate Glass?
- August 19, 2014 - Glass Surface Quality – Scratch/Dig Specifications
- June 17, 2014 - Display Glass Capabilities
- November 16, 2012 - Bus Bars & Optics
- October 29, 2012 - Fused Silica vs. Quartz
- September 27, 2012 - X-Ray Glass (Radiation Shielding Glass)
- September 18, 2012 - Optical Filters – Color Temperature Orange (CTO) and Color Temperature Blue (CTB)
- September 18, 2012 - SCHOTT Robax® Heat Resistant Glass
- September 11, 2012 - Chemical Strengthening vs. Heat Strengthening of Glass Substrates
- September 11, 2012 - PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION – Sputtering vs. Electron Beam Evaporation
- September 4, 2012 - High Ion-Exchange (HIE™) vs. Soda Lime Glass
- August 23, 2012 - Screen Printing on Glass vs. Digital Printing
- August 21, 2012 - Epoxy/Polyester vs. Frit Ink for Screen Printing on Glass Substrates
- May 20, 2010 - UV Blocking Glass Benefits for Dental Curing Lights
- February 22, 2010 - UV Blocking Glass Solutions for Color Correction and Scattered UV Elimination in Photography.
- February 15, 2010 - Using UV Blocking Glass to Protect Liquid Crystal Displays
- February 8, 2010 - Using UV blocking glass to prevent skin and eye damage from entertainment or medical lighting.
- February 1, 2010 - How to Protect Museum Quality Artwork with UV Blocking Glass
- August 27, 2009 - What is a Transparent Heater Window?
- August 20, 2009 - Some ways to improve the performance of an EMI Shielding Window.
- August 18, 2009 - What is an EMI Shielding Window?
- June 22, 2009 - How does a Front Surface Mirror help a Rear Projection System?
- June 16, 2009 - What is a Front Surface Mirror?
- March 11, 2009 - Reduce LCD panel failure from excessive IR and UV light.
- March 9, 2009 - Protect liquid crystal displays from sunlight damage.
- March 4, 2009 - Hot Mirror applications for use with digital photography
- December 15, 2008 - What is a cold mirror useful for?
What is a Thin Film Optical Coating?
Thin film optical coatings are applied to optical substrates such as glass to alter or change its optical properties. The coating is applied in extremely thin layers to the surface and the number of coatings and the thickness of the coating is done to effect a specific wavelength of the light. Thin Film Optical Coatings from Abrisa Technologies are applied via electron beam and ion-assisted electron beam deposition influencing and controlling reflectance, transmittance, absorbance and resistance.
Thin Film Optical Coatings include:
- Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
- Index-Matched Indium Tin Oxide
- Front & Back Surface Mirrors
- Dichroic Filters
- Band-pass Color Filters
- AR – anti-reflective Coatings
- Beam Splitters
- Metal Coatings
- Precision Hot Mirrors
- Cold Mirrors
- Neutral Density Filters
- Infrared or IR Filters
- Ultraviolet UV Filters
The thin film multi-layer coatings can be applied to glass substrates as thin as 70 microns and as small as 0.1” and as thick as 6” and in diameters up to 36”.
Click Here for additional Thin Film Coatings capabilities.
Solid colored glass has many popular uses
Generally used for architectural projects, entertainment lighting and landscape lighting, the soda-lime or borofloat based glass can be heat strengthened for additional resistance to thermal shock. The glass can be machined, screen printed, sandblasted and fabricated to virtually any shape or size.
Abrisa Technologies carries a large inventory of MR11 (1.370”) and MR16 (1.965”) diameter and 1/8” thick lenses in stock. For a quote Click Here.
Abrisa Technologies Red #201 – Used to project a primary red colored light. Holiday/Theme lighting or dramatic effects.
Abrisa Technologies Yellow #203 – Vibrant and warm, excellent for special effects and accents. Great for landscaping.
Abrisa Technologies Pink #205 – This pale pink color is good for toning, and can be used to pull out the red and rich color of wood, while eliminating a green cast.
Abrisa Technologies Deep Green #206 – A dark yellow green or primary green, this is perfect for holiday lighting and special effects.
Abrisa Technologies Medium Amber #207 – Primary Amber. Used in landscape lighting often to bring out the color in brick, stone, rock landscapes. Also used for creating sunsets, candlelight or eliminated unwanted blue light.
Abrisa Technologies Medium Blue #209 – Good for non-realistic night skies or creating dramatic effects. Can be used as a primary blue.
Abrisa Technologies Blue Correction #211 – Used in landscape lighting as a correction filter. Makes the green in foliage “pop”. Also used for moonlighting. Helps maintain white light and eliminate amber hues. Cool area light.
Abrisa Technologies Lavender #401– Can be used for color correction or to bring out the reds or browns in wood.
Abrisa Technologies Mercury Vapor Green #402 – Used in landscape lighting to duplicate the output of a mercury vapor lamp. Brings out the green in foliage.
Abrisa Technologies Light Amber #403 – Warm Pale Yellow. Create fire effects or bring out the warm colors in brick, stone, “rockscapes”.
Abrisa Technologies Red #PS20 – Used to project a primary red colored light. Holiday/Theme lighting or dramatic effects.
Abrisa Technologies Amber #PS15 – Warm golden amber. Create special effects, candlelight, sunlight and firelight.
Many additional lighting products are available. For a complete list of Abrisa technologies absorption filters and dichroic filters and Roscoe reference numbers, Click Here.
Metallic Mirror Coatings
Abrisa Technologies can deposit a wide variety of precious and non-precious metals onto glass substrates depending upon the application requirement. Metal mirror coatings are often used in systems where a very broadband reflector or beam splitter is needed.
Metal coatings can also be an excellent choice when an economical coating is especially important. Examples of common metal coating applications include telescope mirrors, neutral density filters, and general purpose laboratory mirrors.
Metals commonly deposited by Abrisa Technologies include aluminum, chromium, silver, gold, and Inconel. Other metals, semi-conductors, and alloys are available, contact our ZC&R Coatings for Optics division for more information: (800) 426-2864.
Standard mirror coating specifications are detailed below:
- Protected Aluminum – Wavelength range (400 – 700nm) and reflects an average of > 85% rover the visible spectrum. Used for applications in the visible or near-infrared.
- Enhanced Aluminum – Wavelength range (450 – 650nm) and provides >93% reflectivity. A multi-layer film of dielectrics on top of the aluminum enhances the reflectance in the visible and ultraviolet regions.
- Protected Gold – Wavelength range (700 – 2000nm) and reflects an average of 97%. This coating is best-suited for applications requiring high reflectance in the near-infrared and infrared regions. IR wavelength bands 3-5nm and 8-12nm.
- Protected Silver – Wavelength range (500 – 800nm) and provides >98% coating offers excellent reflectivity in the visible and infrared regions. It is used for broadband applications. Best suited in low humidity environments to reduce tarnishing.
Understanding the Physical Properties of Glass
Different types of glass possess different qualities depending upon their chemical makeup and how they have been produced. Choosing the right type of glass for a particular application also means understanding the different physical properties each different type of glass possesses.
There are 5 main properties of glass to be considered:
- Thermal Properties
- Optical Properties
- Chemical Properties
- Electrical Properties
- Mechanical Properties
- High resistance to heat up to 700ºC
- Good optical transmission
- Blocks UV
- Excellent resistance to thermal shock
- Windows for room heaters and stoves
- Fireplace screens
- UV blocking shields
- Cover panels for high powered flood lights
- Cover panels for IR drying appliances
- Outstanding optical clarity
- Mirror smooth finish
- Produced without any toxic/heavy metals, arsenic or antimony
- Vision panels in fire doors
- Fire door lights
- Fire window glazing
- Cutting – click here for more info
- Scribe Cutting
- Hand Cutting
- Precision XY Sawing (slicing)
- Tube & Rod Cutting
- Edging – click here for more info
- Angles and Multi-level Bevels
- Corner Dubbing
- Circle and Flat
- Pencil and Polished Edges
- Machining – click here for more info
- CNC Processing
- Drilling – Holes and Tapers
- Circle Grinding & Polishing
- Buffing and Lapping
- 60º – This is the highest level of etching, least amount of glare and reflectivity
- 140º – This is the lowest level of gloss, most similar to untreated glass
- Cut/Seam – this is often called a safety seam edge or swiped edge, the primary purpose is to remove the sharp edges; it is not a smooth cosmetically finished edge. A sanding belt is used to lightly sand off the sharp edge of the glass.
- Machine Ground – Diamond embedded grinding wheel put a satin finish on the edge
- Pencil – edge has a radius similar to pencil of a “C-shape”.
- Flat – a flat edge with a small 45 degree chamfer on the very top and bottom.
- Machine Polished – Taking a ground edge another step, polishing the edges to give the glass a nice sheen finish.
- Pencil – edge has a radius similar to pencil of a “C-shape”.
- Flat – a flat edge with a small 45 degree chamfer on the very top and bottom.
- Low reflection, high resolution, superior durability and anti-newton ring
- “Low-Sparkle” grade available for aviation display, military and other high tech display
- Can be heat tempered, laminated or chemical strengthened
- Does not become highly reflective as a result of oily fingerprints like anti-reflective coated glass or untreated surfaces
- For quality assurance, gloss values measured by Gardner Glossmaster 60º
- Available from 60 gloss to 130 gloss units
- Can be etched on one or both surfaces
- Electronic Displays
- Cover Screens – monitor face plates
- LCD Displays
- Computer Screens
- Projection Monitors
- Advertising Panels – outdoor electronic monitors & systems
- Touch Screens
- Medical Instrumentation
- Ruggedized Displays
- High transmission & low reflectance
- Abrisa Technologies can AR coat customer-supplied glass optics or fabricate from our existing stock of anti-reflective coated glass
- Large format AR-coated glass readily available (contact factory for stock availability)
- Contrast enhancement for sharp, clear graphics and text
- Standard broadband AR reduces surface reflection from 4% to less than 0.5%
- Can be used in conjunction with conductive ITO coatings, bus bars, UV rejection coatings and surface enhancement coatings (index matching available)
- Can be custom designed to meet your wavelength requirements
- Anti-Smudge coating can be applied over AR to reduce “fingerprinting”
- Hydrophobic topcoat can be applied to eliminate moisture buildup
- Electronic Displays
- Optics for LED lighting
- LCD Displays
- Front Panel Displays
- Thin-Film LCD Heater Panels
- Instrumentation Windows
- Architectural Windows
- Display Cases
- Projection Port Windows
- Sight Glass
- LED color correction
- Special effects (photography)
- Entertainment (stage & theatrical lighting)
- Architectural lighting systems – mood and cosmetic enhancement (color correction) add warmth or cooler atmosphere depending upon the environment desired. For instance restaurant lighting – a warm dichroic filter is used to enhance food and atmosphere while a jewelry store would use a cool filter to enhance sparkle and shine of the gems.
- 45º reflective dichroic – (beam splitter) – Beam Splitter (BS) is a term used to describe various coatings which divide a beam of light into separate beams. Dichroic filters are often called beam splitters. In this section, we will be describing beam splitters that divide light at each wavelength of interest into two separate beams.
- Additive & subtractive color filters – (blue, red, green, cyan, yellow, magenta, orange)
- Longpass (Trim Filter or LWP) – Long pass filters block a select band of shorter wavelengths. This example, long wave pass cutoff filter provides average reflectance more than 99% from 400-700nm, 50% cutoff point at 750nm ±10nm and 95% transmission from 780-1200nm.
- Shortpass (Trim Filter or SWP) – Short pass filters block a select band of longer wavelengths. This example, short pass filters block a select band of longer wavelengths. Short wave pass cutoff filter passes light from 325-450nm and blocks visible light from 500-700nm. It has a 50% point at 470nm ±10nm.
- Bandpass – These filter coatings transmit varying wavelength bands, which are determined by two cutoff wavelengths. Filters can be made at any given wavelength from near ultraviolet to near infrared.
- Notch (Minus) Filter – Notch filters block a relatively narrow band of wavelengths between shorter and longer pass bands.
- Much better filtering characteristics than conventional filters
- Ability to easily fabricate a filter to pass any band pass frequency and block a selected amount of the stop band frequencies (saturation)
- Because light in the stop band is reflected rather than absorbed, there is much less heating of the dichroic filter than with conventional filters
- Much longer life than conventional filters; the color is intrinsic in the construction of the hard microscopic layers and cannot “bleach out” over the lifetime of the filter (unlike for example, gel filters)
- Filter will not melt or deform except at very high temperatures (many hundreds of degrees Celsius)
- Chip depth – measured from the face of the glass into the thickness. Allowed up to 50% of the glass thickness.
- Chip width – perpendicular distance from the edge of the glass to the inner edge of the chip. Allowed up to half the glass thickness or 1/4″ whichever is greater for glass; for mirror, half of glass thickness or 1/16” whichever is greater.
- Chip length – distance parallel to edge of glass from one edge of a chip to the other. Allowed up to two (2) times the chip width.
- 2 to 3% higher light transmission in 1/8” thickness vs. regular soda-lime glass and 8% higher light transmission in ½” thickness vs. regular soda-lime glass
- 91% visible light transmission for 1/8” – 3/8” thick glass
- Good flatness and surface quality due to float process
- Can be coated with anti-reflection coating on both sides to achieve 98% total light transmission
- Retains colorlessness and clarity over time unlike some plastic components which can yellow
- Can be fully heat tempered to increase thermal shock resistance and mechanical strength
- Asahi Dragontrail™
- Corning® Gorilla® Glass
- SCHOTT Xensation™
Glass is measured in a variety of factors which greatly affect your choice of glass. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) is the expansion measurement of glass as temperature is raised. This is an important factor to consider when placing glass in a frame since glass expands much less than most metals and plastics, and may cause breakage upon cooling. The thermal conductivity is the ability to conduct heat through the glass or away from the heat/light source. This is important when considering glass as a view port exposed to high temperatures or for high infrared applications. Each type of glass has a maximum operating temperature and thermal shock rating. These will guide the choice of glass depending on the amount of heat the glass will withstand, and how it cools after the glass is subjected to a rapid change in temperature. Glass may be strengthened to change these thermal properties by heat strengthening, heat tempering, or chemically strengthening. Click here to learn more about glass strengthening.
There are several important measurements when determining the amount of light passing through glass. The refractive index determines how much a light wave is “bent” when entering or leaving the surface of the glass. This is important in producing certain optical devices or effects, such as lenses. The dispersion measures the separation of light into its component colors, such as a prism dispersing white light into a color band or a rainbow effect. The transmission measures the amount of light passing through the glass material, and its opposite, reflectivity which measures the return of light from the surface. The absorption property is the amount of light energy converted to heat within the glass that is not transmitted nor reflected. Tinted materials will absorb more light than clear materials.
All soda lime type glasses and some borosilicate glasses contain sodium or alkali metal ions. Prolonged exposure to liquids or vapor, such as water, will cause the sodium/alkali ions to migrate to the surface of the glass called sodium or alkali leaching. This can cause cloudiness or haze on the surface of the glass. Porous coatings may also incur this phenomenon, causing a disruption of the bond between the coating and the glass surface. In high humidity or critical surface applications, this must be considered when specifying the material. Placing a “barrier” coating, such as silicon dioxide, on the glass will limit the amount of reaction. The acid resistance and alkali resistance measure the time it takes to remove a layer of specified thickness for each test.
When choosing a glass for electrical or electronic applications, there are several characteristics to consider. The volume resistivity is the resistance in ohms between opposite faces of a centimeter cube of the glass tested. This is important when glass is used as an electrical insulator. The dielectric constant of a glass is the ratio of energy stored in a condenser with the glass as the dielectric, compared with the energy stored in the same condenser with air as the dielectric. This measures the ability of a glass to store electrical energy, and varies with the frequency of the voltage applied to the condenser. This is important when the glass is used as a substrate for electrical or electronic devices. Surface resistivity is the ratio of the potential gradient parallel to the current along its surface, to the current per unit width of the surface. This method is used to measure the conductivity of coated glass.
The mechanical properties of glass determine the amount of stress a glass can withstand. Stress is defined as the perpendicular force per unit area applied to an object, in a way that compresses (compressive stress) or stretches (tensile stress) the object. Strength of the ability of glass to withstand these stresses. Non-strengthened glass materials have relatively low tensile strength yet high compressive strength. Therefore, most glass breakage is due to tensile stress failure. Mechanical properties are measured in a variety of ways: Modulus of Rupture (MOR) test measures the bending or flexural strength; shear modulus measures the amount of shearing or twisting forces a glass can withstand; Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) measures the hardness of glass; density is the mass value per unit of volume specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the glass to the density of water.
Annealing vs. Tempering – Glass Strengthening
Annealing – During Initial Manufacturing
When glass undergoes the annealing process, it is slowly cooling the hot glass to relieve internal stress once it has been formed. Annealing glass makes it more durable. Glass which has not undergone the annealing process is susceptible to cracking or shattering when subjected to relatively small temperature changes or mechanical shock. It may in fact retain many of the thermal stresses caused by quenching (i.e. heat treating) and significantly decrease the overall strength of the glass.
During the manufacturing process the glass is heated until the temperature reaches the annealing point which is the stress relief point glass reaches during the cool down phase. At this point, the glass is too firm to distort or bend but remains soft enough for any built up stresses to relax. Soaking or holding the piece of glass at this temperature helps to even out the temperature throughout the piece of glass. The time required for this soak or holding action can vary depending on the mass and type of glass. Once this point has reached and the hold time has been accomplished, the annealed glass is slowly cooled through the strain point. Following this process, the glass can carefully be cooled until it reaches room temperature.
Tempered Glass – Strengthening a Finished Piece of Glass
When glass is tempered, it goes through a thermally controlled toughening process to increase its strength compared with normal or conventional glass. The tempering process puts the outer surfaces of the glass into compression and the inner surfaces of the glass into tension. This stress causes the glass when broken to crumble into small granular chunks vs. jagged shards preventing possible injury. Annealed glass which has not been heat tempered, if broken will not break into the “safety” chunks or dices, but will in fact break into jagged shards.
Tempered glass is considered to be safety glass and is used for applications such as car windshields, shower doors, glass tables and doors and more.
SCHOTT Pyran® vs. SCHOTT Robax® – Ceramic/Glass
ROBAX® is a transparent ceramic fireplace glass manufactured by SCHOTT. It is extremely heart-resistant and sturdy and displays a very low thermal expansion. ROBAX’s temperature stability, transparency, heat transmission and long life span make it an excellent choice in comparison to conventional flat glass where thermal shock and shifts in temperature are present, making it a perfect selection for protection from fire hazards.
Abrisa Technologies can provide ROBAX® in thicknesses of 3mm to 5mm and in sizes up to 62” x 33” (1574.8 x 838.2mm)
Find out more about ROBAX® – click here
PYRAN® is a transparent environmentally friendly fire-rate architectural glass-ceramic that is fire-protection rated for up to 90 minutes. It is intended for use in non-impact, safety-related locations.
Abrisa Technologies can provide PYRAN® in thicknesses of 5mm and in sizes up to 77” x 43” (1955.8 x 1092.2mm)
Find out more about PYRAN® – click here
Glass Machining Capabilities
Abrisa Technologies can provide high precision machining of a broad array of flat glass substrates such as soda lime, borosilicate (Borofloat®), fused silica and quartz, Pyran®, Robax®, HIE glass such as AGC Xensation, Corning® Gorilla® Glass, SCHOTT Xensation™, and more.
High volume, large capacity machining or prototype machining is all done on site at our Santa Paula manufacturing facility.
Typical machining capabilities include:
What is Heat Absorbing Float Glass?
Heat Absorbing Float Glass (HAFG) is designed with the capability to typically absorb 40% of the infrared (IR) light and about 25% or more of the visible light that passes through it. The glass reduces solar heat while maintaining visible light transmission. The soda lime glass is a light blue/green color which subdues brightness while providing high visible light transmittance of up to 77% for a glass that is 6.0mm thick. Heat absorbing float glass is often used as a shortpass (SP) filter.
A shortpass filter is an optical interference or colored glass filter that attenuates longer wavelengths and transmits or passes shorter wavelengths over the active range of the target spectrum (usually UV ultraviolet and visible region). Learn More
Common uses include fluorescence microscopy and in dichromatic mirrors and excitation filters.
To learn more about Heat Absorbing Float Glass, Click Here
Hot Mirror vs. Cold Mirror
Hot and cold mirrors “heat control filters” are types of dichroic filters used to remove unwanted energy from a light emitting source.
A hot mirror is a dichroic filter that reflects 90% of near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light while transmitting up to 80% of the visible light. Hot mirrors transmit the shorter wavelengths and reflect the infrared energy. Hot mirrors can be specified for an angle of incidence ranging from aero to 45 degrees. . They are made by applying a multi-layer dielectric coating to the glass substrate such as Borofloat® borosilicate glass. Learn more
A cold mirror is a dichroic filter that reflects up to 90% of the visible light spectrum while allowing transmission of infrared wavelengths IR and near IR of up to 80%. Cold mirrors reflect the shorter wavelengths and transmit the heat (infrared). A cold mirror can be specified for an angle of incidence ranging from zero to 45 degrees. They are made by applying a multi-layer dielectric coating to the glass substrate such as Borofloat® borosilicate glass. Learn more
Abrisa Technologies provides these heat control filters in thicknesses of 1.1mm, 1.7rmm and 3.3mm in sizes of up to 24” in diameter.
What is Safety Glass?
Safety glass is glass which resists shattering. Heat strengthened or tempered glass is1 type of safety glass; the reason being, when it breaks, it breaks into rounded grains of glass versus sharp shards, which could cause serious injury.
Abrisa Technologies provides heat tempered safety glass utilizing soda lime glass as per standard ASTM C-1048-04. The soda lime glass is toughened through the controlled heating and cooling of the glass to maintain a temperature differential between the core and outer surfaces. The stress induced compresses the outer surfaces, forming a glass substrate substantially stronger than standard soda lime glass. When this glass is broken, it “dices” into many small pieces which prevents the likelihood of injury due to a fracturing of the glass.
Abrisa Technologies can provide heat tempering or “safety tempering” of glass on substrates measuring as small as 0.75” x 0.75” up to 29” x 33”. Glass minimum thickness of 0.118” and maximum thickness of 0.75”.
Automobile windshields, shower enclosures, table tops, lighting fixtures, some windows, appliances and more, are all made of a form of safety glass.
For more information click here
What is a Neutral Density Filter?
A neutral density or ND optical filter reduces or modifies the intensity of all wavelengths or colors of light equally, therefore providing for no changes in the hue of the color rendition. Neutral density filters can be colorless or clear, or they can be grey in tone.
For photography, the purpose of a ND filter is to reduce the amount of light entering via the camera lens, preventing overexposure of images. The filter allows for a longer exposure times than would otherwise be possible. The longer exposure time may allow the photographer to emphasize motion in the image taken. ND filters also enable larger apertures, producing a shallow depth of field.
What is a UV Filter?
A UV blocking filter or ultraviolet optical filter prevents ultraviolet light transmission. UV filters are commonly used in photography to reduce the level of ultraviolet light that strikes the recording medium. Historically, photographic films were mostly sensitive to UV light, which caused haziness or fogginess, and in color films a bluish hue. Therefore, as a standard, a UV (blocking) filter was used, transparent to visible light while filtering out shorter ultraviolet wavelengths. However, newer photographic film and digital cameras are highly insensitive to UV wavelengths.
Overexposure to UV can cause skin and eye damage requiring windows and other glass surfaces to be used for protection. Similarly, UV exposure can also damage artwork, documents, and other ink based items found behind UV blocking glass generally found in museums.
Abrisa Technologies generally uses borosilicate glass; Borofloat® as the filter medium and the standard thickness is 0.125” (3.175mm), custom thicknesses are available. The UV filter size can be as large as 24” or (609.6mm) in diameter.
For a complete description of all Abrisa Technologies UV Filter options, click here.
What is a Hexagonal Louver?
The cells of the hexagonal louver minimize perceived lamp brightness and shield the light source. Commonly used in conjunction with a colored or dichroic filter for entertainment lighting applications, or those requiring diffusion.
Abrisa Technologies carries stock inventory of MR 11 (1.370”) diameter and MR16 (1.965”) diameter louvers which have a thickness of 3mm. Custom sizes can be ordered.
The hexagonal louvers are made from a low density, high strength material originally used for structural use in the aircraft industry. Hexagonal louvers can be fabricated to nearly any shape or size. The MR11 and MR16 louvers provide 45 degree cut-off. Custom cut-off requirements are available. The louvers can withstand temperatures up to 350ºF.
Non-Glare or Anti-Glare glass breaks up incident light reflected images, allowing the user to focus on the display image versus the reflected images. Unlike anti-reflection coated or untreated surfaces, anti-glare etched glass does not become highly reflective as a result of oily finger prints.
Abrisa Technologies anti-glare glass is manufactured by a controlled acid etch process yielding uniform diffused surfaces for anti-glare, high resolution.
Varying levels of diffusion specified as gloss yield different levels of reduced glare. A lower gloss reading denotes a more diffuse panel. The more diffuse the panel surface, the more glare reduction it provides. However, an inverse relationship exists between the degree of diffusion and the panel’s resolution.
Specular Gloss & Gloss Units
Specular gloss is quantified by measuring the amount of light reflected from the sample and comparing it with the amount of light reflected when a polished black glass calibration standard is measured under the same conditions. The glass standard is assigned a value of 100 gloss units. Any surface that reflects more light than the black glass standard will produce a glossmeter reading of greater than 100 gloss units.
The glossmeter illuminates a test surface at a defined angle of incidence and measures the amount of light at a defined angle of reflection. Since basic physics tells us that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, it is convenient to refer to one angle only and this is generally referred to as the “geometry” of the instrument.
The lower the gloss units, the less glare. Abrisa Technologies can provide non-glare or anti-glare soda lime glass with the following gloss unit specifications:
Abrisa Technologies can fabricate many edge treatments for the various glass substrates we provide. The edge treatment selected can affect functionality and performance.
Edging is done for safety, cosmetics, functionality, cleanliness, improved dimensional tolerance, and to prevent chipping. Edging is generally described as a grinding process used to remove the sharp or raw edge of cut glass.
The most common edge treatments done at Abrisa Technologies are:
|Flat Ground or Flat Polished Edge|
|Pencil Ground or Pencil Polished Edge|
Minimum glass thickness for edging at Abrisa Technologies is: 0.020” (0.5mm)
|Cut/Seam Soda Lime||Flat Polished Soda Lime||Pencil Polished Soda Lime||Pencil Polished Borofloat®||Flat Ground Borofloat®|
* Edge photos are for sample reference only. Actual edge treatments may appear more sheen like for polished edges.
Strengthening glass can be done via three primary processes; tempering, thermal strengthening and chemical strengthening in order to increase the heat resistance and overall strength of the glass.
Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the inner surfaces into tension. Such stresses cause the glass, when broken, to crumble into small granular chunks instead of splintering into jagged shards as plate glass (aka: annealed glass) create. The granular chunks are less likely to cause injury.
As a result of its safety and strength, toughened glass is used in a variety of demanding applications, including passenger vehicle windows, shower doors, architectural glass doors and tables, refrigerator trays, as a component of bulletproof glass, for diving masks, and various types of plates and cookware.
Heat tempering of glass is available in sizes of 160” x 92” (4,064 mm x 2,336.8 mm). This process can be done on glass with a minimal thickness of 1/8” (3.175 mm) and a maximum thickness of 1/2” (12.7 mm), (1” thick for smaller parts – up to 30” x 24” or 762 mm x 609.6 mm). In the heat tempering process, the glass substrate is placed onto a roller table and then it goes through a furnace, heating up the glass above its annealing point up to about 720°C in some cases. The glass is then quickly cooled (quenched) with forced air drafts.
The heat-treatment process of ordinary float glass consists in heating the glass beyond its softening point (over 600°C) and then cooling it down rapidly. This cooling freezes the outer surfaces in their dilated mode while allowing the inner material to retract as temperature drops, thus creating compression strength on the outer layers and tension in the inner layer. Compression strengths in tempered glass are higher than in heat strengthened glass.
Heat strengthening of glass is available in sizes of 168” x 96” (4,367.2 mm x 2,438.4 mm). This process can be done on glass with a minimal thickness of 1/8” (3.175 mm) and a maximum thickness of 1/2” (12.7 mm), (1” or 25.4 mm thick for smaller parts – up to 32”x 25” or 812.8 mm x 635 mm). In the heat strengthening process, the glass substrate is processed similar to a fully tempered part, except that the temperature and cycle times, along with the quenching parameters are varied.
Abrisa Technologies’ High Ion Exchange or HIE™ glass is chemically strengthened glass that has increased strength as a result of a post-product chemical process. Glass is submersed in a bath containing a potassium salt (typically potassium nitrate) at 300°C. This causes sodium ions in the glass surface to be replaced by potassium ions from the bath solution. These potassium ions are larger than the sodium ions and therefore wedge into the gaps left by the smaller sodium ions when they migrate to the potassium nitrate solution. This replacement of ions causes the surface of the glass to be in a state of compression and the core in compensating tension. The surface compression of chemically strengthened glass may reach up to 690 MPa. This process typically increases the strength of the glass by 6 to 8X that of float glass. The ion-exchange process creates a deep compression layer on the surface of the glass structure, reducing the introduction of flaws once incorporated into the end product and put into service.
Chemically strengthened glass is available in a minimum thickness of 0.30mm (0.012″), and a maximum thickness of 19mm or (0.75″). Minimum size is 25.4mm x 25.4 mm or (1″ x 1″) and a maximum size of 914.4mm x 736.6mm or (36″ x 29″). Diagonal maximum size of 1056.8mm x 736.6mm or (42″ x 29″) – approximately 51″ diagonal.
Property Changes Due to Strengthening Glass – Comparison Chart
|Property||Heat Tempering Change||Heat Strengthening Change||Chemical Strengthening Change (8 hours)||Chemical Strengthening Change (16 hours)|
|Impact Resistance*||5 to 6x||N/A||3 to 4x||4 to 5x|
|Bending Strength*||4 to 5x||2x||3.5x||2.5 to 3x|
|Resistance to Temperature*||4x||2.5x||1.8 to 2.5x||1.8 to 2.5x|
|Compressive Stress at Surface||>69MPa||24MPa to 69MPa||165MPa (24kpsi)||220MPA (32kpsi)|
*Relative increase over annealed glass. 5x means 5 times greater
Anti-glare or non-glare glass
Ideal for outdoor or high ambient light applications
Non-glare glass is manufactured by acid etching one or two surfaces of the glass, providing uniform evenly diffused surfaces for high resolution applications. Non-glare glass disperses reflected light, allowing the user to focus on the transmitted image. Non-glare glass is available in several quality and etching levels: from picture frame quality to display quality, and from 60 to 130 gloss units.
The lower the gloss reading, the more diffuse the glass panel surface is. The more diffuse the panel surface, the less glare the viewer sees. However, an inverse relationship exists between the degree of diffusion and the panel’s resolution.
Features of non-glare glass:
Anti-reflective coated glass
Excellent for all types of ambient lighting and increases transmission which can reduce necessary power output of LEDs and other displays
AR glass is a glass that has been optically coated on one or two sides to diminish reflections and increase the light transmission, to reduce surface glare and increase substrate transmission and brightness offering better contrast definition by reducing surface reflection over a specific wavelength range. Ghost images and multiple reflection can be minimized and possibly eliminated by applying an AR coating on the glass surface.
Abrisa Technologies AR coatings are all dielectric single or multilayers and are designed for low reflectance and high transmittance in the UV, visible and near IR spectral bands.
Features of anti-reflective glass:
Oleophobic (anti-smudge) coatings on glass and ceramic surfaces create an oil resistant, anti-fingerprint surface that is impervious to dirt, dust, oils, and other particulates resulting in a surface that is easy-to-clean and maintains a cleaner surface longer than untreated glass. Oleophobic coatings are well-suited for projected capacitive (PCAP) and capacitive touch screens, handheld devices, teleprompters, virtual reality applications, and more.
Hydrophobic coatings do not allow water to bond with the surface of the glass. The coated surfaces of the glass become water-resistant, repelling water, dust, oil, dirt and a host of aqueous solutions allowing for easy cleaning of the substrate. Abrisa Technologies’ water repellant hydrophobic coating is an organic film that does not degrade or delaminate over time. The coating can be applied for optics applications with wavelengths between 250nm and 2,700 nm. The rugged coatings comply with MIL-C-575C for severe abrasion. The hydrophobic coating can be provided in either a coated or laminated process and is ideal for touch screen applications.
Abrisa Technologies can provide Oleophobic and Hydrophobic coatings on glass substrates from 01.mm to 25mm thick. The coatings can be applied in conjunction with other Abrisa Technologies coating and fabrication processes for highly customized optics solutions.
CleanVue™ PRO when bonded to Abrisa Technologies’ proprietary AR coating has proven to be rugged and durable, and has a low coefficient of friction, providing protection against scratching. Abrisa Technologies’ extensive tests concluded that the product’s oleophobic and hydrophobic water-repelling characteristics did not breakdown or degrade after steel wool, cheese cloth, and MIL-C-675C severe abrasion eraser testing. The coating can also be applied to glass substrates and select coatings for enhancement to their hydro/oleophobic properties.
Click here to see data sheet: CleanVue™ PRO – PRO-AR399
A dichroic filter, thin-film filter, or interference filter is a very accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors. By comparison, dichroic mirrors and dichroic reflectors tend to be characterized by the color(s) of light that they reflect, rather than the color(s) they pass.
Dichroic filters use the principle of thin-film interference, and produce colors in the same way as oil films on water. When light strikes an oil film at an angle, some of the light is reflected from the top surface of the oil, and some is reflected from the bottom surface where it is in contact with the water. Because the light reflecting from the bottom travels a slightly longer path, some light wavelengths are reinforced by this delay, while others tend to be canceled, producing the colors seen.
Dichroic color filter coatings are an excellent alternative to dyed plastics and glass when a beam of light must be split into two distinct beams varying by wavelength.
Dichroic and color correction filters have the advantage of reflecting unwanted light instead of absorbing the energy, which allows dichroic filters to be used with much higher intensity light sources up to 550°F.
Dichroic glass coating/filters can be utilized for heat control (UV & IR) blocking, as soft and spread lenses, and for color correction.
Dichroic filters from Abrisa Technologies are primarily used in such applications as:
Dichroic filters can be utilized for heat control (UV & IR) blocking, as soft and spread lenses, and for color correction.
Available types of dichoic filters offered by Abrisa Technologies include:
Advantages of Dichroic Filters:
Abrisa Technologies has over 160 different color filters available. Dichroics are offered from 1.1mm (.043”) thick up to 3.3mm (1.28”) thick.
Flat glass that has a seamed edge or slightly beveled edge is that which has been lightly sanded to remove any sharp burrs for. This glass is safe to handle but is not intended for decorative use. A sanding belt is used to lightly sand off the sharp edges of the glass also referred to as a swiped edge or a chamfered edge.
Seamed edges are the most economical but not recommended if the edges will be exposed. Additionally ASTM C1036 standard specification for flat glass – edge chips are allowed on this form of edge work.
Abrisa Technologies provides seamed edges as standard unless another edge treatment is requested.
Low Iron Soda-Lime Glass or water-white glass is a clear transparent soda-lime-based glass that is almost tint-free, resulting from its being produced from higher quality grades of silica sand that are almost totally free of iron oxides. 1/8” thick low iron glass transmits approximately 2 to 3% more light than regular soda-lime glass, making it a perfect solution for applications requiring maximum visible light transmission and little to no color distortion.
Glass that has been tempered or heat strengthened cannot be machined. Any fabrication done prior to the heat or tempering process must be smooth as well as chip and crack free. Any holes, notches, etc. should be located on the fabricated glass part so as to avoid breakage during the strengthening process.
Unlike heat toughened glass, chemically strengthened soda lime glass may be cut after strengthening, but loses its added strength within the region of approximately 20 mm of the cut. Similarly, when the surface of chemically strengthened glass is deeply scratched, this area loses its additional strength.
High Ion-Exchange (HIE™) Chemically Strengthened Thin Glass CAN NOT be post fabricated. That includes:
This glass can only be strengthened as a final step. It may be coated and screen printed, but not machined.
- Strengthened glass loses over 50% of its strength if successfully cut, so it would no longer be considered HIE™ chemically strengthened glass.
- HIE™ glass is under high levels of compressive stress making it extraordinarily difficult to machine.
Corning® Eagle XG® is a borosilicate glass specifically designed for high performance LCD’s. It is considered environmentally friendly as it contains no heavy metals (arsenic, antimony, barium, or halides). The glass also features high surface quality, excellent thermal properties, low density, and high resistance to chemicals.
- Environmentally friendly (no heavy metals)
- Excellent surface quality
- Good thermal properties
- Low density
- Chemical durability
- Thicknesses – 0.0433” (0.7mm) and 0.0275” (1.1mm)
SCHOTT D263® is a thin, colorless borosilicate glass with low alkali content produced with extremely pure raw materials making it highly chemical resistant. It is produced in a special draw process that results in excellent surface quality that can be coated without any post-process surface work. The combination of these traits makes D263® highly versatile.
- Extremely flat surfaces
- Large range of thicknesses (0.030mm – 1.1mm)
- Very good substrate for coatings
- Excellent transmission over a large spectrum
- Low level mobility of alkali ions
- Coefficient of thermal expansion close to ceramic
- High chemical resistance
- Smooth fire polished surface
- Borofloat® 33 is a clear and transparent colorless glass with excellent transmission and its very weak fluorescence intensifies over the entire light spectrum making Borofloat® 33 ideal for a wide range of applications in optics, opto-electronics, photonics, and analytical equipment.
- Has a low thermal expansion, high shock resistance, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 450ºC for long periods, making it a good choice for applications requiring temperature stability.
- Is highly resistant to attack by water, strong acids, alkalis as well as organic substances which make it suitable for use in the chemical industry with applications such as sight glasses for reaction vessels and fitting.
- Has a lower density than soda lime float glass making it possible to construct lightweight laminated glass systems (e.g. bulletproof glass).
- Provides a high transmission of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelength.
- Its low alkali content makes it a good electrical insulator.
- Its high boron content can be used as a neutron absorber glass for nuclear energy applications.
- Is environmentally friendly and made of natural raw materials. The glass can be recycled several times.
- Can be waterjet and laser cut, can be provided with arrissed, beveled, ground or polished edges, it can be coated (anti-reflective or AR coated) thermally toughened/strengthened, screen printed, sand blasted, surface polished, and drilled.
- High Mechanical Strength
- Low density/lightweight
- High flatness
- Low waviness
- High light transmittance
- Low Fluorescence
- High homogeneity
- Colorless appearance
- High thermal robustness
- Low C.T.E. (3.25 x 10-6 K-1)
- High Thermo-shock resistance
- Hydrolytic resistant
- 120/80 is considered commercial quality
- 80/50 is a common acceptable cosmetic standard
- 60/40 is acceptable for most scientific research applications
- 40/20 laser quality
- 20/10 optics precision
- Medical diagnostic screens
- Airport security X-ray screens
- Safety goggle lenses
- View windows for CT and angiography
- Protection windows & glove boxes in laboratories
SCHOTT Borofloat® 33 borosilicate is a versatile glass with infinite applications. The unique float glass is manufactured in a process which results in a homogeneous material that has an excellent mirror-like surface, a high degree of flatness, and an outstanding optical quality.
Mechanical & Surface Properties
Glass Surface Quality – Scratch/Dig Specifications
Scratch/Dig refers to cosmetic defects found in glass from the manufacturing and/or handling process. Abrisa Technologies’ standard metric for measuring such defects is based upon industry standards. The lower the ratio, the more stringent the specification.
Your specific application will determine the quality level and test procedures necessary. Specifically, this specification defines the state of polish, and freedom from scratches and digs.
Scratches – A scratch is defined as any linear “tearing” of the surface of the glass. The scratch number refers to the width of the reference scratch. See Standards Table below. Keep in mind that this equivalence is determined purely by visual comparison, and the appearance of a scratch can depend upon the component material, presence of any coatings, and lighting conditions. This, again, refers to the width. The acceptance/rejection of the length of a specified scratch is determined by a ratio of the length of the scratch to the size of the glass part.
Digs – A dig is defined as a pit or small crater on the surface of the glass. Digs are defined by their diameter. The dig number represents the actual size of the dig in hundredths of a millimeter. The diameter of an irregularly shaped dig is ½ x (Length + Width).
Scratches are determined by width size while digs are determined by diameter.
Scratch/Dig Standards Table:
|Scratch/Dig Grade||Scratch Max. Width||Dig Max. Diameter|
|120/80||0.0047” or (0.12mm)||0.0315” or (0.80mm)|
|80/50||0.0032” or (0.08mm)||0.0197” or (0.50mm)|
|60/40||0.0024” or (0.06mm)||0.0157” or (0.40mm)|
Abrisa Technologies has a specific standard AS1001 for performing scratch/dig inspection. To view this specification – click here.
Screen Printed Graphics
Bus Bars & Wire Soldering
Protective Coatings & MIL-Spec Tests
Bus Bars & Optics
A bus bar is a strip of conductive material applied to the surface of a conductively coated glass, most commonly ITO (indium tin oxide) or IMITO (index matched ITO) coatings. Bus bars are screen printed onto an exposed surface of the coated glass; Abrisa applies bus bars either by thin film deposition of chrome-nickel-gold or by screen printing. The conductive nature of these materials makes them excellent bus bars.
The primary function of a bus bar is to conduct electricity. Typical bus bar applications for optics include heater windows and EMI Shielding.
In the case of IMITO coatings, we need to expose the ITO so that the bus bar can be applied directly to the conductive ITO coating.
For more information contact: email@example.com
Fused Silica vs. Quartz
Fused Silica and Quartz are both extremely pure materials featuring very low thermal expansion and excellent optical qualities. They both work well as high temperature view ports, optical windows, and in areas that require good chemical resistance.
The main difference between the two is that Fused Silica is composed of a non-crystalline silica glass, while Quartz is made from crystalline silica. This difference gives Fused Silica very high transmission in the UV spectrum compared to that of Quartz. Quartz also features a much lower OH content.
The Abrisa Industrial Glass (AIG) division offers two options:
Corning® 7980 Fused Silica – Corning® 7980 is a very pure, non-crystalline silica glass. It features very low thermal expansion and excellent optical qualities, including very high transmission in the UV spectrum.
up to 6.5” x 6.5”
GE 124 Fused Quartz – GE 124 is a very pure fused quartz, made from crystalline silica. GE 124 is very similar to fused silica, with the exception of less transmission in the UV spectrum and much lower OH content. Other features besides its purity include excellent thermal properties and high resistance to chemicals.
up to 4”
up to 36” diameter
To learn more go to: Fused Silica/Quartz
X-Ray Glass (Radiation Shielding Glass)
X-Ray leaded glass is a radiation shielding glass that contains a high content of heavy metallic oxides. The heavy metallic oxides, most notably the lead oxide (PbO), provides the protective qualities against X-rays and Y-rays for use in the medical and technical fields. Despite the high metallic oxide content, Radiation Shielding Glass features high optical transmission, which makes it a perfect fit for view windows for X-ray rooms.
Other applications would include:
Lead content is measured in percentage, and has a lead equivalency value associated with the content. The lead equivalency value is measured in millimeters and represents the thickness of a solid lead plate with comparable properties to the content of the lead in the glass.
Abrisa Technologies carries 8mm thick glass with lead content percentage of 55% – 65%, and a lead equivalency of 2mm.
X-Ray glass from Abrisa Technologies is available in sizes up to 31” x 29”
Learn more click, X-Ray Glass
Optical Filters – Color Temperature Orange (CTO) and Color Temperature Blue (CTB)
Optical filters are a great tool for a wide variety of lighting applications. One common use of optical filters includes changing the correlated color temperature of a light source. For example, changing the appearance of light from a tungsten lamp so that it looks more like daylight; or, changing light from a flash lamp to look more like light from a tungsten lamp. The class of optical filters used to make these types of color changes are called Color Temperature filters.
The term color temperature comes from the natural phenomenon of colored light emitted by warm objects. Very warm objects, such as a candle flame, emit deep red and orange light. The temperature of a candle flame is roughly 1500K. If you increase that temperature the light emitted begins to look more blue. An example that comes to mind is a piece of hot iron worked by a blacksmith. A hotter fire heating the iron will cause the iron to glow increasingly with a blue hue. The blue appearance of the iron indicates that the temperature of the metal is up above 6500K.
Of course, optical filters don’t really change the temperature of the object emitting the light. We are able to achieve our magic by using color temperature filters to remove some of the light of wavelengths of our choosing. So for example, we can use a filter to absorb or reflect away some of the orange and red light emitted by a tungsten lamp. This makes the remaining light look more blue and results in a higher correlated color temperature. Conversely, we can use a filter to remove some of the blue light emitted by a flash lamp making the remaining light look more orange and having a lower correlated color temperature.
Fortunately these color temperature filters have been standardized. There are two types typically supplied by Abrisa Technologies. These two types are Color Temperature Orange (CTO) and Color Temperature Blue (CTB). Each type is also divided into a few different standard values indicating the amount or degree of color temperature shift they induce. A Full CTO is specified to have a color temperature shift that changes a 5500K color temperature to approximately 3200K. The other standard CTO filters supplied by Abrisa Technologies are 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 CTO. Respectively, these shift a 5500K light source down to approximately 4900K, 4500K, and 3800K.
A full CTB filter does just the opposite and shifts 3200K up to 5500K. Other standard values of CTB include 1/4 and 1/2. The 1/4 CTB filter shifts 3200K up to approximately 3500K. And the 1/2 CTB filters shifts 3200K up to approximately 4100K.
Standard Abrisa Technologies color temperature filters are supplied on Borofloat® glass substrates in sizes as large as 24″ in diameter. Standard and custom sizes are available. Additionally, we are happy to provide custom filters for your color application.
For more information contact: firstname.lastname@example.org